Jonathan DONER - Madalina DINA - Julia GANOTIS
Per JOHANSSON - Sirkka LAAKKONEN - Javier RAMIREX
Amy OLDS - Tineke SMITH - Zorge and Tigons
Opening Reception: SATURDAY June 11th, 6-9
June 11th - July 2, 2016
Neumagener Straße 27
Marzia Frozen is pleased to announce
an international group exhibition of a new generation of
artists working today. This will be a group exhibition at MARZIA FROZEN
in Berlin, and will feature a selection of paintings, sculptures
Day is usually defined as the period when sunlight reaches the ground in
the absence of local obstacles. On the day of the equinox, the center of
the Sun spends a roughly equal amount of time above and below the
horizon at every location on the Earth, so night and day are about the
same length. In reality, the day is longer than the night at an equinox.
There are two reasons for this:
First, from the Earth, the Sun appears as a disc rather than a point of
light, so when the centre of the Sun is below the horizon, its upper
edge is visible. Sunrise, which begins daytime, occurs when the top of
the Sun's disk rises above the eastern horizon. At that instant, the
disk's centre is still below the horizon.
Second, Earth's atmosphere retracts sunlight. As a result, an
observer sees daylight before the top of the Sun's disk rises above the
horizon. Even when the upper limb of the Sun is 0.4 degrees below the
horizon, its rays curve over the horizon to the ground.
In sunrise/sunset tables, the assumed semidiameter (apparent radius ) of
the Sun is 16 minutes of arc and the atmospheric
refraction is assumed to be 34 minutes of arc. Their
combination means that when the upper limb of the Sun is on the visible
horizon, its centre is 50 minutes of arc below the geometric horizon,
which is the intersection with the celestial sphere of a horizontal
plane through the eye of the observer. These effects make the day about
14 minutes longer than the night at the equator and longer still towards
the poles. The real equality of day and night only happens in places far
enough from the equator to have a seasonal difference in day length of
at least 7 minutes, actually occurring a few days towards the winter
side of each equinox.
The times of sunset and sunrise vary with the observer's location
(longitude and latitude ), so the dates when day and night are
equal also depend upon the observer's location.
At the equinoxes, the rate of change for the length of daylight and
night-time is the greatest. At the poles, the equinox marks the
transition from 24 hours of nighttime to 24 hours of daylight (or vice
In the half-year centered on the June solstice, the Sun rises north of
east and sets north of west, which means longer days with shorter nights
for the northern hemisphere and shorter days with longer nights for the
southern hemisphere. In the half-year centered on the December solstice,
the Sun rises south of east and sets south of west and the durations of
day and night are reversed.
Also on the day of an equinox, the Sun rises everywhere on Earth (except
at the poles) at about 06:00 and sets at about 18:00 (local time). These
times are not exact for several reasons:
The Sun is much larger in diameter than the Earth, so that more than
half of the Earth could be in sunlight at any one time (due to
unparallel rays creating tangent points beyond an equal-day-night line).
Most places on Earth use a time zone which differs from the
local solar time by minutes or even hours. For example, if the Sun rises
at 07:00 local time on the equinox, it will set 12 hours later at 19:00.
Even people whose time zone is equal to local solar time will not see
sunrise and sunset at 06:00 and 18:00. This is due to the variable
orbital speed of the Earth and the inclination of its orbit, and is
described as the equation of time. It has different values for the
March and September equinoxes (+8 and −8 minutes respectively).
Sunrise and sunset are commonly defined for the upper limb of the solar
disk, rather than its center. The upper limb is already up for at least
a minute before the center appears, and the upper limb likewise sets
later than the center of the solar disk. Also, when the Sun is near the
horizon, atmospheric refraction shifts its apparent position above its
true position by a little more than its own diameter. This makes sunrise
more than two minutes earlier and sunset an equal amount later. These
two effects combine to make the equinox day 12 h 7 min long and the
night only 11 h 53 min. Note, however, that these numbers are only true
for the tropics. For moderate latitudes, the discrepancy
increases (e.g., 12 minutes in London); and closer to the poles it
becomes very much larger (in terms of time). Up to about 100 km from
either pole, the Sun is up for a full 24 hours on an equinox day.
Night includes twilight. If dawn and dusk are instead considered
daytime, the day would be almost 13 hours near the equator, and longer
at higher latitudes.
Height of the horizon changes the day's length. For an observer atop a
mountain the day is longer, while standing in a valley will shorten the
Day arcs of the Sun
Some of the statements above can be made clearer by picturing the day
arc (i.e., the path the Sun tracks along the celestial dome in its
diurnal movement). The pictures show this for every hour on equinox day.
In addition, some 'ghost' suns are also indicated below the horizon, up
to 18° below it; the Sun in such areas still causes twilight. The
depictions presented below can be used for both the northern hemisphere
and the southern hemisphere. The observer is understood to be sitting
near the tree on the island depicted in the middle of the ocean; the
green arrows give cardinal directions.
In the northern hemisphere, north is to the left, the Sun rises in the
east, culminates in the south, while moving to the right and setting in
In the southern hemisphere, south is to the left, the Sun rises in the
east, culminates in the north, while moving to the left and setting in
the west .
Oil on canvas
100 x 100 cm
High School Angst
Mixed media on paper
50 x 70 cm
Oil on canvas
100 x 81 cm
Acrylic on canvas
100 x 100 cm
Into Nature III
Oil on canvas
100 x 100 cm