Curated  by  Javier  RAMIREX

Jonathan DONER -  Madalina DINA - Julia GANOTIS 
  Amy OLDS - Tineke  SMITH -  Zorge and Tigons

Opening  Reception:  SATURDAY   June 11th, 6-9 pm 

      June 11th - July 2, 2016



Neumagener Straße 27

Haus 7
13088 Berlin 


Marzia Frozen is pleased to announce an  international  group exhibition of a new generation of artists working today. This will be a group exhibition at MARZIA FROZEN in Berlin, and will feature a selection of  paintings, sculptures and drawings.

Day is usually defined as the period when sunlight reaches the ground in the absence of local obstacles. On the day of the equinox, the center of the Sun spends a roughly equal amount of time above and below the horizon at every location on the Earth, so night and day are about the same length. In reality, the day is longer than the night at an equinox. There are two reasons for this:
First, from the Earth, the Sun appears as a disc rather than a point of light, so when the centre of the Sun is below the horizon, its upper edge is visible. Sunrise, which begins daytime, occurs when the top of the Sun's disk rises above the eastern horizon. At that instant, the disk's centre is still below the horizon.
Second, Earth's atmosphere  retracts sunlight. As a result, an observer sees daylight before the top of the Sun's disk rises above the horizon. Even when the upper limb of the Sun is 0.4 degrees below the horizon, its rays curve over the horizon to the ground.
In sunrise/sunset tables, the assumed semidiameter (apparent radius ) of the Sun is 16 minutes of arc  and the  atmospheric refraction   is assumed to be 34 minutes of arc. Their combination means that when the upper limb of the Sun is on the visible horizon, its centre is 50 minutes of arc below the geometric horizon, which is the intersection with the celestial sphere of a horizontal plane through the eye of the observer. These effects make the day about 14 minutes longer than the night at the equator and longer still towards the poles. The real equality of day and night only happens in places far enough from the equator to have a seasonal difference in day length of at least 7 minutes, actually occurring a few days towards the winter side of each equinox.
The times of sunset and sunrise vary with the observer's location  (longitude  and latitude ), so the dates when day and night are equal also depend upon the observer's location.
At the equinoxes, the rate of change for the length of daylight and night-time is the greatest. At the poles, the equinox marks the transition from 24 hours of nighttime to 24 hours of daylight (or vice versa).

In the half-year centered on the June solstice, the Sun rises north of east and sets north of west, which means longer days with shorter nights for the northern hemisphere and shorter days with longer nights for the southern hemisphere. In the half-year centered on the December solstice, the Sun rises south of east and sets south of west and the durations of day and night are reversed.
Also on the day of an equinox, the Sun rises everywhere on Earth (except at the poles) at about 06:00 and sets at about 18:00 (local time). These times are not exact for several reasons:

The Sun is much larger in diameter than the Earth, so that more than half of the Earth could be in sunlight at any one time (due to unparallel rays creating tangent points beyond an equal-day-night line).
Most places on Earth use a  time  zone which differs from the local solar time by minutes or even hours. For example, if the Sun rises at 07:00 local time on the equinox, it will set 12 hours later at 19:00.
Even people whose time zone is equal to local solar time will not see sunrise and sunset at 06:00 and 18:00. This is due to the variable orbital speed of the Earth and the inclination of its orbit, and is described as the  equation of time. It has different values for the March and September equinoxes (+8 and −8 minutes respectively).
Sunrise and sunset are commonly defined for the upper limb of the solar disk, rather than its center. The upper limb is already up for at least a minute before the center appears, and the upper limb likewise sets later than the center of the solar disk. Also, when the Sun is near the horizon, atmospheric refraction shifts its apparent position above its true position by a little more than its own diameter. This makes sunrise more than two minutes earlier and sunset an equal amount later. These two effects combine to make the equinox day 12 h 7 min long and the night only 11 h 53 min. Note, however, that these numbers are only true for the tropics. For  moderate latitudes,  the discrepancy increases (e.g., 12 minutes in London); and closer to the poles it becomes very much larger (in terms of time). Up to about 100 km from either pole, the Sun is up for a full 24 hours on an equinox day.
Night includes twilight. If dawn and dusk are instead considered daytime, the day would be almost 13 hours near the equator, and longer at higher latitudes.
Height of the horizon changes the day's length. For an observer atop a mountain the day is longer, while standing in a valley will shorten the day.

Day arcs of the Sun
Some of the statements above can be made clearer by picturing the day arc (i.e., the path the Sun tracks along the celestial dome in its diurnal movement). The pictures show this for every hour on equinox day. In addition, some 'ghost' suns are also indicated below the horizon, up to 18° below it; the Sun in such areas still causes twilight. The depictions presented below can be used for both the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. The observer is understood to be sitting near the tree on the island depicted in the middle of the ocean; the green arrows give cardinal directions.
In the northern hemisphere, north is to the left, the Sun rises in the east, culminates in the south, while moving to the right and setting in the west.
In the southern hemisphere, south is to the left, the Sun rises in the east, culminates in the north, while moving to the left and setting in the west .


, 2015
  Oil  on  canvas
100 x 100 cm


High School Angst
, 2016
  Mixed media on paper
50  x 70 cm


, 2015
  Oil on canvas
  100 x 81 cm

, 2016
Acrylic  on canvas
100 x 100 cm

Tineke  SMITH
Into Nature III
, 2015
  Oil  on canvas
  100 x 100 cm