curated by Javier RAMIREX
Reception: SATURDAY May 1st 6 - 12
May 1st - May 31, 2010
Daniele AFFERNI - Katrin ALVAREZ - Valentina AZZINI -
Alberto BACCARI - Gabriele BONATO - Dr. Lusine
BREITSCHEIDEL - Antonio CHIERICI - Lan HUNGH - Valeria
FINAZZI - Gilberto GIARDINI - Kerry GRøNENG - Sarah Love
PARK - Javier RAMIREX - Banafsheh RAHMANI - Lisbeth
Dal POZZO - Astrid STöFHAS - Michele -
PRINCIPATO - Mario TONINO - Angela VINCI -
Herma Auguste WITTSTOCK
Landsberger Allee 54
10249 Berlin, GERMANY
Tel: +49 (0) 176 686 38384
Marzia Frozen is pleased to announce an international
group exhibition of a new generation of artists working today. This
will be a group exhibition at Galerie FRIEDRICHSÖHE in
Berlin, and will feature a selection of paintings, sculptures,
photographs, performances and videos.
Censorship still exists today , have passed 500 years since
Michelangelo Buonarroti, was banned when he painted
the Sistine Chapel.The Last Judgment was an object of a bitter dispute
between Cardinal Carafa and Michelangelo. Because he
depicted naked figures, the artist was accused of immorality and
obscenity. A censorship campaign (known as the "Fig-Leaf
Campaign") was organized by Carafa and Monsignor Sernini (
Mantua's ambassador) to remove the frescoes. When the Pope's own
Master of Ceremonies Biagio da Cesena said "it was mostly disgraceful
that in so sacred a place there should have been depicted all those
nude figures, exposing themselves so shamefully, and that it was no
work for a papal chapel but rather for the public baths and
taverns,"Michelangelo worked da Cesena's semblance into the scene as
Minos, judge of the underworld. It is said that when he complained to
the Pope, the pontiff responded that his jurisdiction did not extend to
hell, so the portrait would have to remain.
The genitalia in the fresco were later covered by the
artist Daniele da Volterra, whom history remembers by the
derogatory nickname "Il Braghettone" ("the breeches-painter").
Francisco de Goya suffered
censorship when he painted La Maja
Desnuda (known in English as The Naked Maja) is an oil
on canvas painting, portraying a nude woman reclining on a
bed of pillows. It was executed some time between 1797 and 1800, and is
sometimes said to be the first clear depiction of female
pubic hair in a large Western painting.
Goya created another painting of the same woman identically posed,
but clothed, entitled La Maja Vestida (The Clothed Maja); also in
the Prado, it is usually hung next to La maja desnuda. The identity of
the model and why the paintings were created are still unknown. Both
paintings were first recorded as belonging to the collection of Prime
Minister Manuel de Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, and it has been
conjectured that the woman depicted was his young mistress. It has also
been suggested that the woman was Maria del Pilar Teresa
Cayetana de Silva y Alvarez de Toledo, 13th Duchess
of Alba, with whom Goya is rumored to have been romantically involved
and did complete known portraits of. However, many scholars have
rejected this possibility, including Australian art critic Robert
Hughes in his 2003 biography, Goya. Many agree that Pepita
Tudò is a more likely candidate. Others believe the woman
depicted is actually a composite of several different models.
In 1815, the Spanish Inquisition summoned Goya
to reveal who commissioned him to create the "obscene" La maja desnuda,
and he was consequently stripped of his position as the Spanish court
painter. If Goya gave an explanation of the painting's origin to the
Inquisition, that account has never surfaced. Two sets of stamps
depicting La maja desnuda in commemoration of Goya's work were
privately produced in 1930, and later approved by the Spanish Postal
Authority. That same year, the United States government barred and
returned any mail bearing the stamps.
In 1907 Paris-based Spanish artist Pablo
Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, to
an unsuspecting public. The shock
waves sent out by this work
without doubt easier to appreciate
than the aesthetic challenge posed
by the Impressionists some decades
earlier. Picasso replaced the unthreatening
female nude with what appeared to
be a group portrait of prostitutes, and
he did so in a style that did
not echo his Western ancestors, but
that drew upon non European
art view by his contemporaries as
In 1915, the anarchic members of the Dada movement began to wreak
havoc in Switzerland. Their impact spread through Europe, eventually
taking root in Germany. Two of Dada's best known German proponents are
Otto Dix (1891-1969) and George Grosz (1893-1959), whose work developed
into the genre known as Neue Sachlichkeit, and whose challenging brand
of social and political satire is exemplified by Dix's Erinnerung an
die Spiegelsale von Brussel (1920). Such works led the National
Socialists to brand their art, along with that of many of their
contemporaries, as degenerate.
Dadaism made its way to New York, where a key figure was the
French-American artist Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968). In 1917 he created
what is perhaps his best known work,Fountain, a urinal signed with one
of the pseudonyms under which he worked, R. Mutt. With this work, which
was excluded from the first exhibition of the New York Society of
Independent Artists, Duchamp simultaneously created the first
ready-made and ignited the "but is it art?" debate that continues to
rage to this day.
Surrealism was born from Dada and launched in 1924 with the
publication of Manifeste du Surralisme by Andr Breton (1896-1966);
activity was initially centred on Paris in the 1920's and 1930's.
Surrealism's most famous legacy is the precisely rendered, detailed
fantasies of the Spaniard Salvador Dal (1904-89). Paintings such as
Hallucination Partielle: Six Images de Lenine sur un Piano (1931),
sought not only to challenge the viewer's taste, but also to disturb.
Piss Christ is a 1987 photograph by photograper Andres
Serrano. It depicts a small plastic crucifix submerged in a glass
of the artist's urine. The piece was a winner of the Southeastern
Center for Contemporary Art's "Awards in the Visual Arts"
competition, which is sponsored in part by the National
Endowment for the Arts, a United State
Government agency that offers support and funding for
The piece caused a scandal when it was exhibited in 1989, with
detractors, including United State Senators
Al D'Amato and Jesse Helms, outraged that Serrano received
$15,000 for the work, part of it from the taxpayer-funded
National Endowment for the Arts. Supporters argued the Piss
Christ is an issue of artistic freedom and
freedomof speech. Others alleged that the government funding of
Piss Christ violated separation of church and
Sister Wendy Beckett , an art critic and Catholic nun stated
in a television interview with Bill Moyers that she
regarded the work as not blasphemous but a statement on "what we have
done to Christ" - that is, the way contemporary society has
come to regard Christ and the values he represents.
During a retrospective of Serrano's work at the
National Gallery of Victoria in 1997, the then
Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, George Pell,
sought an injunction from the Supreme Court of
Victoria to restrain the National Gallery of Victoria from
publicly displaying Piss Christ, which was not granted. Some days
later, one patron attempted to remove the work from the gallery wall,
and two teenagers later attacked it with a hammer. The director of the
NGV cancelled the show, allegedly out of concern for a Rembrandt
exhibition that was also on display at the time.
Piss Christ was included in "Down by Law," a "show within a show"
on identity politics and disobedience that formed part of the
2006 Whitney Biennal. The BBC documentary Damned in
the USA explored the controversy surrounding Piss Christ.
In June 1989,artist Lowell Blair Nesbitt became
involved with a scandal involving Mapplethorpe's work. The Corcoran
Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. had agreed to host a
traveling solo exhibit of Mapplethorpe's works, without making a
stipulation as to what type of subject matter would be used.
Mapplethorpe decided to show a new series that he had explored shortly
before his death, Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment curated by
Janet Kardon of the Institute of Contemporary Art. The hierarchy of the
Corcoran and several members of Congress were horrified when the works
were revealed to them, and the museum refused to go forth with the
exhibit. It was at this time that Nesbitt, a long-time friend of
Mapplethorpe, revealed that he had a $1.5 million bequest to the museum
in his will. Nesbitt publicly promised that if the museum refused to
host the exhibition he would revoke his bequest. The Corcoran refused
and Nesbitt bequeathed the money to the Phillips Collection instead.
After the Corcoran refused the Mapplethorpe exhibition, the
underwriters of the exhibition went to the nonprofit Whashington
Project for the Arts which showed the controversial images in its own
space from July 21 - August 13, 1989, to large crowds.
In 1999 the exhibition SENSATION was shown in
New York City at the Brooklyn Museum of Art from 2 October 1999
to 9 January 2000. The New York show was met with instant protest,
centering on The Holy Virgin Mary by Chris Ofili, which had not
provoked this reaction in London. While the press reported that the
piece was smeared with elephant dung, Ofili's work in fact showed a
carefully rendered black Madonna decorated with a resin-covered lump of
elephant dung. The figure is also surrounded by small collaged images
of female genitalia from pornographic magazines; these seemed from a
distance to be the traditional cherubim.
It was Chris Ofili who found
himself at the center of the
storm in New York. Ofili had
already experienced controversy when he
too won the Turner Prize in 1998.
His intricately patterned mixed-media
works draw on his Nigerian heritage
and are characterized by their
inclusion of elephant dung. The focus of
the outrage was The Holy Virgin
Mary (1996): a mixed media
painting/collage depicting a black madonna,
surrounded by images of buttocks, with
the addition of the ubiquitous dung.
Ofili stayed well out of the
affray as his work was branded
New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, who had seen the work in the
catalogue but not in the show, called it "sick stuff" and threatened to
withdraw the annual $7 million City Hall grant from the
Brooklyn Museum hosting the show, because "You don't have a
right to government subsidy for desecrating somebody else's religion."
Cardinal John O'Connor, the Archbishop of New York, said, "one must ask
if it is an attack on religion itself," and the president of America's
biggest group of Orthodox Jews, Mandell Ganchrow, called it "deeply
offensive". William A. Donohue, President of the Catholic
League for Religious and Civil Rights, said the work
"induces revulsion". Giuliani started a lawsuit to evict the museum,
and Arnold Lehman, the museum director, filed a federal lawsuit against
Giuliani for a breach of the First Amendment.
Hillary Clinton spoke up for the museum, as did the New York Civil
Liberties Union. The editorial board of The New York Times said,
Giuliani's stance "promises to begin a new Ice Age in New York's
cultural affairs."The paper also carried a full-page advertisement in
support signed by over 100 actors, writers and artists, including Susan
Sarandon, Steve Martin, Norman Mailer, Arthur Miller, Kurt
Vonnegut and Susan Sontag. Ofili, who is Roman Catholic, said,
"elephant dung in itself is quite a beautiful object.
FUCKING KUNST is an exhibition of
contemporary art that encourage artists
to express without any censorship and
is against of any repression of freedom
Game Woman, 2010
Mixed Media on canvas
100 x 100 cm
Pedro's Daydream, 2009
Acrylic on canvas
100 x 70 cm.
The Mirror, 2010
Oil on canvas
90 x 60 cm.
Mixed media on canvas
100 x 100 cm.
Il sogno rosso di un piccolo gobbo, 2010
50 x 35 cm.
Lisbeth Dal POZZO
Watercolor and pencil on paper
53 x 44 cm.
Cat walk, 2010
Oil on Canvas
80 x60 cm.
Mixed Media on wood
100 x 100 cm.
I Senza Terra, 2009
Acrylic on canvas
70 x 50 cm.
Gli ormeggiatori del porto di Livorno, 2008
Acrylic on canvas
100 x 70 cm.
Alien & Woman, 2010
Acrylic, Spray paint on canvas.
140 x 120 cm.
Herma Auguste WITTSTOCK
Centro de las Artes de Sevilla
The Bride, 2009
Oil on Canvas
50 x 40 cm